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Review Essays of Academic, Professional & Technical Books in the Humanities & Sciences


Personality Theory

The Postconventional Personality: Assessing, Researching, and Theorizing Higher Development  by Angela H. Pfaffenberger, Paul W. Marko and Allan Combs (SUNY Series in Transpersonal and Humanistic Psychology: State University of New York Press, SUNY) Postconventional stages of personality development involve growth well beyond the average, and have become a rapidly growing subject of research not only in developmental psychology circles but also in areas such as executive leadership development. This book is the first to bring together many of the major researchers in the field, showcasing diverse perspectives ranging from the spiritual to the corporate. The contributors present research on essential questions about the existence and prevalence of high levels of personal growth, whether such achievement is correlated with other types of psychological growth, whether high levels of growth actually indicate happiness, what kinds of people exhibit these higher levels of development, how they may have developed this expanded perspective, and the characteristics of their viewpoints, abilities, and preoccupations. For anyone interested in Ken Wilber's integral psychology, as well as those in executive coaching, this volume is an invaluable resource and will be a standard reference for years to come.

Cutting-edge volume devoted to optimal adult development.

In the third stage, the super-logical, the mind seeks to return to immediacy, to solve the dualism and oppositions inherent in the practical life of thought and action. One or another of the great ideals arises and becomes the place of retreat; and the universal categories of thought, the absolute forms of value, and the various panaceas of feeling erect their claims to final authority. [And so in the grand scheme] the leading motives of development [are seen passing] from perception and memory, through the various phases of the reasoning processes, and finding their consummation in the highest and most subtle of the super-logical, rational, and mystic states of mind. —Baldwin (1930, p. 13)

This volume, although rooted in Jane Loevinger's work, goes beyond it in significant ways and presents a comprehensive examination of optimal adult development coming out of positive, developmental, and humanistic psychology. The introduction supplies the background and structure for a theory of the maturation of consciousness and introduces the reader to a rudimentary understanding of Loevinger's (1976) model for ego development. It represents the path that most chapters in this text are either explicitly based on or the underpinning from which their work is derived. Additionally, this chapter presents a background into what is known and theorized about how consciousness changes as it expands from one stage to another, and how this expansion appears as lived experience. It ends with an overview of the studies that appear in this volume and the book's overall significance for future research.

Developmental views in philosophy are at least as old as Friedrich Hegel's 1807 publication of The Phenomenology of the Spirit. James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934), one of American psychology's founding fathers was keenly aware of the importance of development for the human mind, but did not articulate a systematic theory of it. Since the mid-20th century, however, there has been a growing interest in individual maturation, or what many of the present authors term personal evolution. Especially in the second half of the 20th century, such developmental theorists such as Jean Piaget (1952), Laurence Kohlberg (1969), and Ken Wilber (1986, 1995, 2006) have catalyzed both academic and popular interest in developmental studies. Although Maslow (1954/1970) introduced the concept of self-actualization and optimal development into American psychology half a century ago, systematic, empirical research did not begin to emerge until recently under the term postconventional personality development (Hewlett, 2004; Miller & Cook-Greuter, 1994; Torbert, 2004). Only in recent years, however, has serious academic attention been turned toward the examination of the most advanced stages of personality growth and development. Contemporary developmental theorists for the first time are chronicling growth paths from birth to advanced stages of maturation.

Until a few decades ago it was common to conceive of personal development as beginning at birth and proceeding in an orderly fashion through a sequence of developmental stages culminating in conventional adult functioning. The pioneering work of Jean Piaget (e.g., 1952, 1977b) had led to a model of epigenetic, or structural, levels of growth, a stage theory, according to which cognitive development progresses through an invariant sequence of hierarchically arranged stages that form qualitatively distinct units of development. Conceiving of development in this fashion puts an emphasis on the dynamic aspects of state transitions and allows us as well to conceptualize stages of growth that are empirically rarely seen. Work by Lawrence Kohlberg (1969) and Loevinger (1976) offered the most innovative and influential of the early neo-Piagetian theories, applying stage theory to the domains of moral reasoning and ego development, respectively.

Loevinger (1976) defined an ego stage as a frame of reference or a filter that the individual uses to interpret life experiences. It implies a level of character development, cognitive complexity, an interpersonal style, and a set of conscious preoccupations. Loevinger developed a projective assessment instrument for measuring the level of ego development titled the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (SCT). The SCT translates qualitative observations about personality into quantitative data. Using this test, Loevinger laid the empirical foundation for hundreds of later investigations of adult development.

Loevinger conceptualized nine stages of personality development. The way the stages are named and numbered has changed over time, so the reader is cautioned that the same number may describe different stages in various research reports, and different names may describe the same stage. In this introduction we follow the latest version of the scoring manual (Hy & Loevinger, 1996). The reader is referred to Table I.1, showing names and numbering systems used by different authors in this volume. We can describe the first three, Symbiotic, Stage 1; Impulsive, Stage 2; and Self-protective, Stage 3, as preconventional. These stages represent normal developmental stages in childhood, but also are maladaptive strategies in adulthood that can be associated with psychopathologies such as borderline disorders. Individuals at this level fail to understand another's point of view, thus they are devoid of compassion and tend to lead lives narrowly focused on their own personal gain and advantage. Miller and Cook-Greuter (1994) estimate that about 10% of the adult population function at this level.

The following three stages are termed conventional. They describe about 80% of all adults in our culture. The fourth stage, Conformist, describes individuals who are identified with the values and norms of the social group to which they belong. They strive to express this through appearance and behavior, and are concerned about their reputation and possible disapproval from the group. In the eyes of the Conformist,

Table I.1. Correspondence of Ego Development Models

Stage Hy and Loevinger 1996 Cook-Greuter 1999 Torbert 2004 Joiner 2007
2 Impulsive E 2 Impulsive Impulsive Enthusiast
3 Self-protective E 3 Self-protective Opportunist Operator
4 Conformist E 4 Conformist Diplomat Conformer
5 Self-aware E S Self-aware Expert Expert
6 Conscientious E 6 Conscientious Achiever Achiever
7 Individualist E 7 Individualist Individualist Catalyst
8  Autonomous E 8 Autonomous Strategist Co-Creator
9 Integrated E 9  Construct Aware Alchemist Synergist
10   Unitive Ironist  

good is what the group approves of. There is strong emphasis on outer, material aspects of life. A rigid black-and-white worldview in regard to what is acceptable in terms of gender roles and opinions predominates. Loevinger emphasized that members of nonconforming groups within the general culture, such as "hippies" or "punks," often show and expect conforming behavior within their own groups.

The fifth level, Self-aware, is the modal stage of the majority of adults in the contemporary Western culture (Cohn, 1998). Moving to this stage, adults gain more independence in terms of their ability to reflect on group norms, and there is a growing awareness of an inner life. A person can consider different possibilities and alternatives as well as exceptions to the rules. Cognition and affect, however, remain within established categories and are rather undifferentiated. The Conscientious stage, Stage 6, presents a significant step toward further internalization and differentiation. Individuals have established personal standards and values. Moral considerations and responsibilities toward others are now important, as are long-term goals. The Conscientious person strives to understand motivation and individual differences. Situations as well as problems can be seen within specific contexts, and the perspectives of other people are appreciated. In short, the outer direction of the Conformist, Stage 4, has now been fully replaced by an internal orientation that encompasses self-chosen values and standards to which the person strives to achieve.

Stage 7, the Individualistic stage, represents the first of several postconventional stages. To grow beyond Conscientious, Stage 6, a person must become more inner-directed and more tolerant of themselves and others. The self-established standards of the previous stage must become more contextualized and flexible. Persons at the Individualistic stage become aware of contradictions, such as the conflict between their need for autonomy and their need for emotional connection. They are willing to live with emotional and cognitive complexities that may not be resolvable, and they become more psychologically minded.

The Autonomous Stage, Stage 8, and the subsequent Stage 9, Integrated, describe about 10% of the U.S. adult population. Autonomous individuals are able to accept conflict as part of the human condition. They tolerate contradictions and ambiguities well and demonstrate cognitive sophistication. The Autonomous person respects the autonomy of others and values close personal relationships. Self-fulfillment and self-expression gain increasing importance in this person's life. High social ideals of justice are also typical of this stage. Unfortunately, Loevinger found it difficult to arrive at a definitive description of Stage 9 because the sample pool of observable subjects at this stage was so small.

Significant work in regard to the higher stages has been completed by Cook-Greuter (1999), who evaluated more than 14,000 SCTs in an effort to understand the complexities of advanced development. She emphasized a cognitive shift that takes place at the Autonomous level, Stage 8, describing it as the embracing of systemic and dialectical modes of reasoning. Such individuals can hold multiple viewpoints and are interested in how knowledge is arrived at. In the language of the post-Piagetians such as Richards and Commons (1990) this constitutes a postformal way of reasoning. Individuals are aware of subjectivity in the construction of reality, accepting interpretation as the basis for the creation of meaning. Cook-Greuter constructed two postautonomous stages to replace Loevinger's final Stage 9, and suggested that about 1% of the population reach this level of development. The ninth stage in her system is called Construct-aware. At this level, individuals become conscious of how language shapes the perception of reality. Language is experienced as a form of cultural conditioning that people usually remain unaware of throughout their lives.

According to Cook-Greuter (1999) individuals can subsequently progress to an understanding that their egos are actually constructed from memory and maintained through an ongoing internal dialogue. As their self-awareness increases, they become interested in alternative ways of knowing. Transpersonal episodes, such as peak experiences, become increasingly common and people become drawn to meditation, alternate ways of knowing, and the witnessing of the internal process. At this stage, the individual experiences conflict between ordinary consensual reality and transpersonal awareness. This may be evident in the ego's ownership and evaluation of transpersonal episodes, or in seeming paradoxes such as attachment to nonattachment. Only at Stage 10, the Unitive stage, can individuals sustain an ongoing openness to experience that is fluid and without struggle. They are now able to make use of transpersonal experiences free from ego clinging. Individuals have been tested who are found to be functioning at the Unitive stage, ranging upward from 26 years of age.

It is important to note that ego development, as conceptualized by Loevinger, is but one conceptualization of maturity; one that places emphasis on cognitive complexity and a mature conceptualization of the individual's position in the social environment. Hy and Loevinger (1996) point out that ego development cannot be seen as an indicator of social adjustment, nor does it suggest mental health and subjective well-being.

According to structural developmental theory, all stages must be negotiated in consecutive order. And the level currently experienced sets the stage for the dilemmas that must be resolved before progressing to the next higher stage. Individuals who occupy the higher stages of development must, at some point during their lives, have experienced the earlier stages of development. Virtually all models of higher development maintain that each individual begins at the lowest possible stage and progresses onward through the developmental levels in sequence. Thus, people understand the thinking and worldviews of lower developmental stages, but their comprehension of or empathy toward worldviews at higher levels is limited. When they encounter worldviews that do not fit their existing paradigm, they tend to see them with selective attention, screening out perceptions they do not understand or agree with. This phenomenon can lead to awkwardness between a person who has recently moved to a higher stage of growth and his or her previous cohort members. Movement from one stage of development to another creates moral, philosophical, and behavioral changes. If development proceeds into the highest range it can cause a psychological dissonance with the ambient society that exists in the midrange. Consequently, we can assume that individuals who function at high levels of development have experienced, perhaps on several occasions, alienation from those around them due to changes in worldview. These events may have occurred periodically throughout life and perhaps even began in childhood.

Why rapid development occurs for some and not at all for others remains a mystery. If, as is true in most cases, postconventional individuals were exposed to the same rigors of ordinary life as their cohorts, and subjected to the same growth limiting norms, what has provided the impetus for their extraordinary growth? The following pages address this and other enigmas of postformal personality development as they have begun to be illuminated by contemporary psychological research.

Part I: Assessing Advanced Personality Development: The accelerating interest in postconventional and postautonomous stages of human development has given birth to a number of different forms of inquiry. This volume combines many of these, including longitudinal studies, qualitative inquiry, and theoretical explorations. To set this emerging field on a sound foundation, the accurate assessment of high stage development needs to be an ongoing concern. The first part of the present volume is devoted to this subject.

Part II: Emerging Research About Postconventional Development: The second part of this book is devoted to studying postconventional individuals and asking questions about their unique development pathways. Various authors report their empirical research concerning postconventional development.

Part III: Theories of Advanced Development: The third and largest section of this book presents theoretical considerations and discussions about postconventional development.

Inventing Personality: Gordon Allport and the Science of Selfhood by Ian A. M. Micholson (American Psychological Association (APA)) Blending biography and intellectual history, this book examines Allport's early career and his concept of "personality" and its theoretical implications. Nicholson (psychology, Saint Thomas University ) argues that the emergence of "personality" as an object of scientific study was rooted in the cultural politics of the 1920s and 1930s, and specifically the decline of "character" as a moral category.

Inventing Personality examines the early career of Gordon Allport (1897-1967) to reveal the history of the personality category he champi­oned. Drawing on an extensive array of previ­ously unpublished biographical materials, Ian A. M. Nicholson masterfully combines biogra­phy with intellectual history to reveal the ways in which Allport's science was embedded in the cultural politics of the United States in the 1920s and 1930s. He argues that personality's emergence as an object of science was linked to the gradual demise of character and the self­sacrificing, morally grounded self that it sup­ported. Carefully highlighting Allport's com­plex commitments to both science and spiritu­ality, Nicholson examines the rich cultural and historical contexts that framed the emergence of personality as a discipline, revealing multi­ple (even contradictory) meanings of "person­ality" in the language of American selfhood. He asserts that personality's appeal lay in its ability to integrate and obscure the complex polarities of material and spiritual, old and new, masculine and feminine, and freedom and control-categories rendered unstable in a new and distinctively modern age. This book will be invaluable to scholars and practitioners interested in personality, and it will serve as a model of scientific biography.

Perspectives on Personality, Fifth Edition by Charles S. Carver, Michael F. Scheier (Pearson Allyn & Bacon) examines one of the most engaging and mysterious topics in all of life: human personality. As the book's title implies, there are many perspectives a person might take on personality, many ways to think about how people function in life. This book describes a range of viewpoints that are used by personality psychologists today.

The various perspectives of the field of personality provide the organizing framework: each perspective is presented in two chapters and is introduced by a prologue that describes the assumptions and themes of the perspective.

Engaging and very successful, this new edition introduces hundreds of new citations; presents the ideas logically and orderly and concludes with a unique Integration chapter that brings the various perspectives together.

As in the four earlier editions, the book's content reflects two of our strongly held beliefs. The first is that ideas are the most important part of a first course on per­sonality. For this reason, we stress concepts throughout the book. Our first priority has been to present as clearly as we can the ideas that form each theoretical viewpoint.

The second belief is that research is important in personality psychology. Ideas and intuitions are valuable, but an idea shouldn't lie around too long before some­one checks to see whether it actually works. For this reason, along with each theory we discuss research that bears on the theory. This emphasis on the role of research stresses the fact that personality psychology is a living, dynamic process of ongoing scientific exploration.

As in previous editions, we present the theories in groups, which we've labeled perspectives. Each group of theories depends on a particular sort of orienting view­point, an angle from which the theorists proceeded. Within a given perspective there often are several theories, which differ from one another. In each case, however, the theories of a given perspective share fundamental assumptions about human nature.

Each perspective on personality is presented in a pair of chapters, introduced by a prologue. The prologue provides an overview of that perspective's orienting as­sumptions and core themes. By starting with these orienting assumptions, you'll be right inside the thought processes of the theorists as you go on to read the chapters themselves. Each chapter concludes with a discussion of current problems within that theoretical viewpoint and our own best guess about its future prospects.

The perspectives are presented in an order that makes sense to us, but they can easily be read in other orders. Each theoretical section of the book is intended to stand on its own, with no assumptions about previous exposure to other parts of the book. Thus, instructors can move through the perspectives in whatever order they prefer.

As in the previous editions, the final chapter takes up the question of how different views relate to each other. The main goal of this chapter is to tie together ideas from theories discussed separately in earlier chapters. A second goal is to consider the usefulness of blending theoretical viewpoints, treating theories as complemen­tary to each other rather than as competitors.

This edition also continues our use of the feature "The Theorist and the Theory." These boxes focus on how the personal experiences of some of the theorists have influenced the form their theories took. In several cases, theorists almost liter­ally took events from their own lives as models of human events more generally, and went on to derive an entire theory from those personal experiences. Not all cases are quite this striking, but personal experience does appear to have played a role in the development of several views on personality.

In this revision we've continued to try very hard to make the content accessible. We use an informal, conversational style throughout, to try to draw you into the ideas. We've also included examples of how the ideas can apply to your own life. We hope these qualities make the book engaging and enjoyable, as well as informative.

I What's Different about This Edition?

This edition retains the prior structure (the same chapters, in the same perspectives). However, the content of this edition differs in several ways from that of the fourth edition. These changes reflect four years of rapid change in the continually evolving research literature of personality psychology. Updates have been made to every sub­stantive chapter. In fact, we used information from over 400 new sources. Although updates have been made everywhere, several areas of change are major enough that we should note them explicitly.

First, work has continued at a rapid rate on the trait structure of personality and the implications of that structure for behavior. Most of this work is taking place within the framework of the five-factor model. This has resulted in considerable change in Chapter 4 (Types, Trait, and Interactionism). It's also resulted in the inclusion of additional material bearing on the five-factor model in several other chapters.

Second, there continue to be incredibly rapid advances in work concerning be­havioral genetics, molecular genetics, temperament, neurotransmitters, and other bi­ological processes and how they relate to aspects of personality. Theorists have approached these processes and their relations to personality from several direc­tions. As a result, Chapters 6 and 7 have both undergone major updates.

Another area of rapid expansion is work on adult attachment patterns and their implications for personality and social behavior. This explosion of work has resulted in major changes in the chapter dealing with psychosocial theories (Chapter 11).

Rapid expansion has also taken place in work on self-actualization and related models. Research deriving from self-determination theory, terror management the­ory, and related theories has been very active over the past four years. The informa­tion produced by this work has reinvigorated interest in this view of personality, causing major changes in Chapter 14.

Finally, we've included a good deal of new material in the chapters of the Cog­nitive Self-Regulation perspective. This new material includes a discussion of connectionist models of cognitive processes, expanded information on contextual models of behavior, and a broader discussion of the process by which intentions are imple­mented. These two chapters have changed substantially from the previous edition.

Despite adding a great deal of new information, we've also been able to shorten several of the book's longer chapters. We did this by simplifying and tightening the writing. We hope the result is more readable, but with no loss of clarity.

For more information on Perspectives on Personality, Fifth Edition, consult its Web page: www.ablongman.com/carver5e.

Personality Theories: Development, Growth, and Diversity (4th Edition) by Bem P. Allen (Allyn and Bacon) Organized by individual theorists, this comprehensive book examines the major movements in the field through an historic and humanistic approach. Allen begins each chapter with teaser questions that help frame the chapter. The questions are answered in the body of the chapter and are later reinforced through the use of summary points and essay/critical thinking questions at the end of each chapter, which aid in the continuation of a discussion about the text. In addition, Allen provides a tabular format: a running comparison between the major theorists that allows readers to analyze new theories with respect to theories learned in previous chapters. For anyone interested in personality theories.

Excerpt: The organization of the chapters in Personality Theories is unique and consistent throughout the book. All chapters are written using basically the same format, allowing students to quickly learn what to look for, a lesson that will make reading more comfortable and rapid. I have seen many comments about the earlier editions by students at my university, and by students at many other colleges and universities. They clearly indicate great appreciation for Personality Theories' organization (more generally, student reaction to the text has been very favorable). Because the organization is so important to students, it is detailed in the first chapter where they will not miss it. Here, I have provided only a brief rationale for the various chapter sections constituting the organization. (Readers who want more information should see Chapter 1.)

An Introductory Statement, designed to link a given chapter to preceding ones, is followed by a biography of the theorist under consideration. Here each theorist is humanized and groundwork is laid for linking his or her personality and personal history to the theory in question. These biographies provide students with "memory hooks" on which to hang components of each theory.

A View of the Person section follows and orients students by providing them with the philosophical underpinnings of each theory. This section answers such questions as "To what degree is the theory scientific?", "Does the theory attempt to understand the person by reference to the past, present, or future?", "Are external or internal determinants of psychological functioning emphasized?", and "Do inborn or acquired determinants explain personality?" If I had to name one section that is crucial to student understanding this is it. A new part of this book pursues issues raised in "view of the person."

The Basic Concepts section lays out the fundamental constructs of each theory. These critical elements are linked so that students may understand their interrelationships and, where possible, are organized according to some familiar schema. For example, if a theory includes a series of developmental steps, its concepts are presented within the framework of sequential stages. In any event, an effort is made to begin with more global concepts, where they can be identified, and proceed to more specific ones.

Evaluation of each theory is organized into "contributions" and "limitations" subsections. Two broad categories of criteria applicable to both subsections are used to assess aspects of each theory. A given criterion may be used for one theory to illuminate contributions, and for another to point out limitations. Alternatively, a theory may meet a given criterion to some degree, therefore revealing a contribution, or fail to meet the criterion to some degree, indicating a limitation. None of these criteria are relevant to every theory; thus, a given one may be used to evaluate one theory but not another. One of these broad categories is "science criteria." These criteria address such questions as "Is the theory constructed in logical fashion?", "Are the concepts well interrelated?", "Do the concepts tend to be distinct or are they overlapping?", "Are common labels for concepts used or are obscure labels used?", "Does each label give precise meaning to its concept or does it have multiple meanings?", "Do concepts imply testable predictions?" and "Do research studies support the validity of concepts." "Non‑science criteria," the other category, raise such questions as "Does the theory inspire psychologists to experience new insights and clarify their thinking?," "Does the theory lead to a useful method of therapy?," and "Have the theorist's writings been interesting and helpful to laypeople?" Some of these issues are taken up in a new part of the book.

Personality Theories is comprehensive. A first step in developing a plan for the book was to informally survey the range of theories apparently deemed most central to instructors of personality theory. Every theory that has been of interest to even a substantial minority of personality instructors is included in this text. Few, if any other, texts cover as many theories, and none cover a better representation of mainstream theories. It is, therefore, likely that most personality instructors will find the theories they want to cover within the pages of Personality Theories. Furthermore, coverage of modern research on personality is so extensive that this book qualifies as a general personality text. However, the discussion of research is succinct and straightforward so that any student can easily grasp it.

The chapters are grouped in representative clusters and ordered within clusters in popular fashion. For example, Chapters 3 through 8 are devoted to theorists who use Freud's perspective (Chapter 2) as a point of departure for developing their own theories. Theorists most closely linked to Freud are considered in early chapters of this cluster (Jung and Adler), and those more removed from direct influence by him are considered in later chapters (Horney, Sullivan, Erikson, and Fromm). Consideration of Fromm, who should be regarded as an early humanist, provides a bridge to the second cluster, the two chapters on the modern humanists, Rogers and Maslow. Again, existentialism receives significant attention. A chapter on the cognitive approach (Kelly) is followed by chapters on the social­cognitive point of view (MischellRotter and Bandura). Next comes the ideas of self‑proclaimed anticognitive theorist, Skinner. Then a chapter on Murray's theory links early chapter traditions to the humanistic, cognitive, and behavioral orientations, and lays the groundwork for the trait theories. Cattell's and Eysenck's theories are next and emphasis is on modern approaches to the study of traits. Finally, a chapter devoted to Allport's more humanistic and socially flavored theory of traits, focused on personality development and prejudice, ends the book.

I have always found comprehensive texts more attractive than ones with specialized content because they invariably include the chapters I want to cover. Only some of them, however, are written so that I can "unplug" the chapters I want to consider without concern that I have eliminated material essential for understanding covered chapters. In composing Personality Theories, I have taken great care to interrelate chapters, while, at the same time, making sure that each chapter can stand alone should a given instructor wish to consider only a subset of all chapters. I believe that personality instructors will find they can readily skip some chapters of Personality Theories and focus on others without fear that students will be unduly troubled by lack of exposure to eliminated material.

Each chapter begins with "teaser questions" that are designed to alert students to critical issues considered in the chapter and to arouse their curiosity regarding the theory. The presence of these questions at the beginning of each chapter primes students to entertain new material that is dissimilar to that discussed in previous chapters. The questions are always answered in the text of the chapter.

Immediately following the text for each chapter, students will find some Summary Points that will allow them a quick review of the chapter. These "points" are synopses of ten major considerations. They are not an attempt to reiterate the entire chapter. Students can expect that the "points" will trigger their memories concerning major issues in the chapter and the details surrounding them, if they have carefully read the text. The "points" are not a substitute for perusal of the chapter.

All too often, some students will read a chapter‑or, more likely, a set of chapters over which they are to be tested‑and then forget about chapter content as soon as they will no longer be evaluated based on their knowledge of it. The Running Comparison that follows the "points" is constructed so that students are continually reminded of material in earlier chapters. This goal is accomplished by comparing the theory currently under consideration with theories of previous chapters. Also, the "comparison" helps students anticipate future theories by occasionally comparing the current theory with ones yet to be considered. Should instructors wish to give a comprehensive final exam, the "comparison" will help students greatly because it will ensure that they are continually reviewing material from all chapters. In addition, the comparison further sharpens students' understanding of a given theory by contrasting it with other theories.

The next section in each chapter is designed to promote critical thinking. While these Critical Thinking questions can be used as essay‑test items, alternatively, they can also be used as a basis for class discussions. In addition, they are good review questions. More importantly, they can be used by students to expand their thinking by suggesting the implications of theories that reach far beyond the text. Many of these questions will be challenging even to the best students, partly because they require analysis, not "rote memory." These truly are questions that "go beyond the text" and cannot be answered based solely on the text.

A complete Glossary of all concepts composing covered theories is presented at the end of the book. The listing is alphabetical, and each entry clearly specifies its concept. I have simplified many of the glossary definitions and eliminated some entries that were pe­ripheral. Concepts are also listed (with text page numbers) under each theorist's name in the subject index. I have had my students make multiple copies of the subject index so they can more easily prepare for essay questions that ask them to compare theorists.

The last section of each chapter is a listing of questions students can address to me personally via e‑mail. Of course, they may also send me their own questions. The goal is for individual students to satisfy their curiosity. Of course, instructors are encouraged to contact me as well. I hope adopters of this book will encourage students to interact with me in this modern Internet way, not just for their further education in personality, but also because they will benefit by using a mode of communication that will characterize their future. I look forward to relating to student‑users of my book in a more personal way than is allowed by most text authors. My experience with student readers of the previous edi­tions (many hundreds of them) tells me that students learn from and enjoy interactions with the text author.

A comprehensive test‑item file is available. Multiple‑choice items thoroughly cover each chapter's material. Many of these items have been thoroughly tested. Having used them for my own tests, l have been able to eliminate questionable items, rewrite others for clarity, and create new ones that are easily understood by today's students. There are an average of about 100 items per chapter providing instructors with approximately 1,700 items, more than enough for several during‑the‑semester tests and a final exam. This in­cludes some extra items at the end of each item file so that adopters will have a separate pool for make‑up tests and finals. As I have years of experience in contributing multiple­choice items to text manuals, instructors can be assured that items are carefully and pro­fessionally done. Alternatives such as "all of the above," "none of the above," and "both a & b" are avoided because they confuse students. Each item, therefore, has only one cor­rect alternative. All incorrect alternatives are written to be highly plausible so that students must make thoughtful choices. They are often statements true of other aspects of a theory, but incorrect in terms of the main body of the question. These alternatives require students to discriminate among concepts of a theory. Concepts from other theories are also some­times used so that inter‑theory discrimination can be assessed.

I have always believed that tests are learning experiences, not just occasions for eval­uation. Accordingly, items are written to engage students in analytic thinking. Most require that students employ their reasoning powers, rather than merely recognize the correct al­ternative. Items are written so that correct alternatives follow logically from main bodies of questions, a process that will sharpen students' logical thinking. They are also written to be interesting in and of themselves. A computerized test bank is available through your sales representative.

The Instructor's Manual accompanying this text is constructed so that instructors can initiate interesting and edifying classroom discussions and exercises to complement the lectures. As a member of a national college teacher's organization, and a frequent partici­pant in its conventions, I have become convinced that spending the entire class period lec­turing is not ideal either for students or instructors. Students can obtain basic information from the text. Class time can be used to get students excited about the course content, to go over difficult material, to provide the latest hot‑off‑the‑press information about course content, and to cover issues about which the instructor is expert in greater depth than text space allows.

The Instructor's Manual section for each chapter also contains an outline of the chap­ter so instructors can orient themselves regarding chapter content, chapter objectives (which may provide further orientation and can be passed on to students), a list of read­ings for lecture support, and a list of readings for students (they can be placed on library reserve lists). Also, the Instructor's Manual contains a film/video list and the Case of Es­tella Monroe, an additional experience in diversity that will allow instructors to engage stu­dents in the application of all theories to a single case history.

Molecular Genetics and the Human Personality edited by Jonathan Benjamin, Richard P. Ebstein, Robert H. Belmaker (American Psychiatric Publishing) explores the new era of study made possible by the electrifying pace of discovery and innovation in the field of molecular genetics. In fact, several types of genome maps have already been completed, and today's experts confidently predict that we will soon have a smooth version of the sequencing of the human genome­which contains some 3 billion base pairs.

Such astounding progress helped fuel the development of this remarkable volume, the first ever to discuss the brand­new‑and often controversial‑field of molecular genetics and the human personality. Questioning, critical, and strong on methodological principles, this volume reflects the point of view of its 35 distinguished contributors‑all pioneering theoreticians, empiricists, clinicians, developmentalists, and statisticians in this burgeoning field.

For students of psychopathology and others interested in evaluating and exploring the conjunction of "molecular genetics" and "human personality," this fascinating work offers an authoritative and up‑to‑date introduction to the molecular genetics of human personality. The book, with its wealth of facts, conjectures, hopes, and misgivings, begins with a preface by renowned researcher and author Irving Gottesman; continues with groundbreaking chapters on statistics, clinical relevance for psychiatrists, animal models, normal adult personality, infant temperament, intelligence, aggression, drug abuse, sexual orientation, and criticism; and concludes with what the future holds.

Clear and meticulously researched, this eminently satisfying work is written to introduce the subject to postgraduate students just beginning to develop their research skills, to interested psychiatric practitioners, and to informed laypersons with some scientific background.

Content: Foreword: Genes, Temperament, and Personality: Past and Prospect, Irving 1. Gottesman, Ph.D. Principles and Methods in the Study of Complex Phenotypes, D. C. Rao, Ph.D., and Chi Gu, Ph.D. Relevance of Normal Personality for Psychiatrists, C. Robert Cloninger, M.D. Genetics of Personality: The Example of the Broad Autism Phenotype, Joseph Piven, M.D. Animal Models of Personality, Jonathan Flint, M.D. DRD4 and Novelty Seeking, Paolo Prolo, M.D., and Julio Licinio, M.D. Serotonin Transporter, Personality, and Behavior: Toward Dissection of Gene‑Gene and Gene‑Environment Interaction, K. P Lesch, M.D., B. D. Greenberg, M.D., Ph.D., J. D. Higley, Ph.D., A. Bennett, Ph.D., and D. L. Murphy, M.D. Dopamine D4 Receptor and Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphisms and Temperament in Early Childhood, Richard P. Ebstein, Ph.D., and Judith G. Auerbach, Ph.D. Personality, Substance Abuse, and Genes, Richard P. Ebstein, Ph.D., and Moshe Kotler, M.D. Role of DRD2 and Other Dopamine Genes in Personality Traits, David E. Comings, M.D., Gerard Saucier, Ph.D., and James P. MacMurray, Ph.D. Genetics of Sensation Seeking, Marvin Zuckerman, Ph.D. Quantitative Trait Loci and General Cognitive Ability, Robert Plomin, Ph.D. Genetic Polymorphisms and Aggression, Antonia S. New, M.D., Marianne Goodman, M.D., Vivian Mitropoulou, M.A., and

Larry J. Siever, M.D. Molecular Genetics of Temperamental Differences in Children, Louis A. Schmidt, Ph.D., and Nathan A. Fox, Ph.D. Genetics of Sexual Behavior, Dean H. Hamer, Ph.D. From Phenotype to Gene and Back: A Critical Appraisal of Progress So Far, David Goldman, M.D., and Chiara M. Mazzanti, Ph.D. Human Correlative Behavioral Genetics: An Alternative Viewpoint, Evan Balaban, Ph.D. Genetics of Human Personality: Social and Ethical Implications, Jon Beckwith, Ph.D., and Joseph S. Alper, Ph.D. Genes for Human Personality Traits: Endophenotypes of Psychiatric Disorders? Jonathan Benjamin, M.D., Richard P Ebstein, Ph.D., and Robert H. Belmaker, M.D.

Multiple Identities & False Memories: A Sociocognitive Perspective by Nicholas P. Spanos (American Psychological Association) provides a cogent, credible and a scientific explanation for multiple personality disorders and false memory syndrome, among others. His convincing, documented accounts return analyses to a scientific realm rather than the halls of medical sooth sayers with special insights. Nicholas P. Spanos, one of the world's leading experts in the study of hypnosis, delivers a blistering rebuttal to many long-held assumptions about Multiple Personality Disorder, or MPD, now classified in the DSM-IV as Dissociative Identity Disorder or DID. This book argues that MPD is not a legitimate psychiatric disorder but a cultural construct with roots in earlier beliefs about demonic possession. This work offers important corrective and theoretical variability to those interested in dissociative disorders.

Development of Achievement Motivation edited by Allan Wigfield, Jacquelynne Eccles (Academic Press) Achievement motivation is one of the key factors influencing behavior and performance. This book discusses research and theory on how motivation changes as children progress through school, gender differences in motivation, and motivational differences as an aspect of ethnicity. Motivation is discussed within the context of school achievement as well as athletic and musical performance. Coverage includes central constructs and theories such as self-efficacy, expectancies and values, self-worth, beliefs about the nature of ability, achievement goals, intrinsic motivation, and self-regulation. Key features include coverage of the major theories and constructs in the motivation field; focus on developmental issues across the elementary and secondary school period; discussion of instructional and theoretical issues regarding motivation; and consideration of gender and ethnic differences in motivation.


Personality Disorders and the Five-Factor Model of Personality edited by Paul T. Costa, Thomas A. Widiger (American Psychological Association) The 1994 edition of this book has been a definitive resource for both researchers and clinicians interested in the applications of the five-factor model to personality disorders. Since the publication of the first edition, a steady flow of new empirical research has been conducted, and key theoretical developments have occurred. This revised edition updates the book and offers nine important new chapters. A new chapter by the editors presents a comprehensive summary of 55 empirical studies published since 1994 on the relationship of the five-factor model to personality disorder symptoms.

Additional new chapters cover
·The history and conceptual background of the FFM
·Five-factor translations of DSM-III-R and DSM-IV personality disorders
·Empirical findings on the structure and symptomatology of personality disorders from the five-factor perspective
·Application of the FFM to a variety of patient populations, including patients with borderline personality disorder, narcissism, and bulimia nervosa as well as substance abusers, psychopaths, and sex offenders
·The use of standardized instruments to assess personality
·The FFM's usefulness in tailoring treatment to the personality dimensions of particular patients

Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Publishing) Set of patient care strategies developed to assist physicians in clinical decision making, it is a summary of common treatment practices and research with pluses and minuses. It meant to be a refresher and update for physicians.  This practice guideline was approved in July 2001. Three-hole punched. Warning that each case must be pursued on the basis of its own criteria, psychiatrists in active clinical practice or in research offer general guidelines to treating patients with the disorder. It is possible that some of them have received income related to the treatments they recommend. There is no index. It helps orient clinicians to current research, providing realistic descriptions and useful theoretical models from which to design interventions and therapy. Highly recommended.

Self-Identity and Personal Autonomy: An Analytical Anthropology by Stefaan E. Cuypers (Ashgate New Critical Thinking in Philosophy: Ashgate) We are all persons or selves. But what exactly does it mean that we possess an identity and autonomy as persons or selves? This book explores the closely related problems of self‑identity and personal autonomy within the framework of contemporary analytical anthropology, a blend of analytical philosophy of mind and action with moral psychology. Cuypers first criti­cally examines the empiricist bundle theory and metaphysical ego theory of self‑identity as well as the hierarchical Frankfurt/Dworkin model of per­sonal autonomy. Arguing that all these standard views are found wanting, Cuypers then offers an alternative 'personalist' theory of personal identity, plus an innovative `moderately heteronomous' theory of autonomy without ever going beyond the analytical frame of reference.

  In critical discussion with analytical philosophers such as Derek Parfit, John Perry and Harry Frankfurt the author develops an original perspective on the nature of persons or selves that is orthogonal to the received views in analytical anthropology.

  One of the big issues in philosophy is the perplexity and puzzle of our own existence. Addressing the question 'Who am I?' amounts to the same thing as taking up the philosophical questions about our own identity and autonomy as persons or selves. In this book I tackle this issue by setting forth and explaining my views on the closely related problems of self‑identity and personal autonomy. I defend a personalist theory of personal identity and a moderately heteronymous theory of autonomy within the framework of contemporary research in analytical philosophy of mind and action and analytical moral psychology, which I dub 'analytical anthropology' for reasons set out in the introductory chapter.

  In the first part, with regard to the problem of self‑identity, I claim that there is something deeply wrong with the standard debate between materialist empiricists and dualist metaphysicians about personal identity through time. In light of our common sense and scientific beliefs about the world and our ordinary practical values, neither the empiricist approach nor the metaphysical approach can adequately account for both the ontology of personal identity and the importance of personal identity in practical contexts which involve responsibility, love, prudential self‑interest and the like. After introducing the problem as I see it (chapter one) and critically discussing the influential impersonal solution of Parfit and Perry (chapter two), I outline a third, innovative theoretical approach ‑which I call 'analytical personalism' ‑- to the problem, pointing towards a satisfactory theory both of the nature and the importance of personal identity (chapter three).

In the second part, with regard to the problem of personal autonomy, I claim that the influential hierarchical or 'Frankfiirt/Dworkin' model of personal autonomy is fundamentally mistaken about its two cornerstones: selfidentification and self‑evaluation (chapter four). After presenting the model, I critically argue that the process of self­identification cannot entirely be rooted in autonomous 'acts of the will', and, furthermore, that the process of self‑evaluation depends in an important sense on the normative impact of other people's attitudes. As an innovative alternative I then sketch a view of personal autonomy in terms of 'passive' self‑identification on the basis of volitional necessity (chapter five) and in terms of `social' self­evaluation based on recognition by others (chapter six). I call this view `moderately heteronomous' because it incorporates `alienating influences' in its heart without becoming totally uncontrollable. Although passivity and social dependence are commonly treated as incompatible with autonomy, I maintain that both volitional necessity and other‑directedness are constitu­tive of authentic personal autonomy.

Character and Personality Types by Nick Totton, Michael Jacobs (Core Concepts in Therapy: Open University Press) It is very difficult for the student or practitioner to find their way through the jungle of different personality typographies that has sprung up in the field of psychotherapy; and even harder for them to find a point of sufficient height above the forest canopy to get their bearings in order to compare one system with another. This volume offers such an observation point together with some possible mappings. It surveys how different schools of therapy approach a basic topic, the differences that exist between people - including their attitudes, feelings, concerns and talents. It examines different systematic and non-systematic approaches to identifying different types of human being, exploring whether there are systematic ways in which humans vary, how we can assess the merit of different typologies, and whether personality typing is a helpful approach to therapy.

Character and Personality Types looks in detail at the arguments for and against the use of typologies of character and personality as a clinical tool; and offers general criteria for judging the merits of particular personality systems, as well as exploring the possibility of a wider synthesis.

The Process Approach to Personality: Perceptgenesis and Kindred Approaches in Focus by Gudmund J. W. Smith (Path in Psychology: Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers) Author Summary: The present monograph deals with process as the theoretical hub of personality theory. Attached is a bundle of methods for personality description. Chapter I focuses the twin concepts of process and structure. These differ above all with respect to rate of change, structure referring to slowly changing process trajectories. Unlike trait, central in contemporary, factorial personality models, structures are not reified entities but active constituents of personality dynamics.

Processes are described with respect to two levels, one extended in macrotime and usually referred to as adaptation or coping, the other hidden in microtime and made visible by means of special methods of protraction. While the adaptive processes help us to come to grips with reality, the microprocesses or PG are instrumental in shaping our conception of it. This emphasis on process makes personality psychology part and parcel of the holistic tradition.

The chapters following the theoretical exordium (2‑to‑10) present the technical aspects of various methods (2‑to‑5) and their applications (6‑to‑10). Methods dealing with adaptive serials are the Serial Color‑Word Test (2 and 6), the Visual Afterimage Technique (3 and 7), instruments for measuring self/rionself integration, i.e., the Spiral Aftereffect Technique, the Oculogyral Illusion, and the Rod‑and‑Frame Test (4 and 8), the genuine PG methods, including both tachistoscopic and amauroscopic techniques and specific tests mapping anxiety and defensive strategies such as the Defense Mechanism Test, the Meta‑Contrast Technique, the Perceptgenetic Object‑Relation‑Test, and kindred methods (5 and 9). Uses of subliminal manipulation are placed in a special chapter (10).

Many readers, particularly those who have themselves been involved in PG research, may wonder why all studies in the field have not been represented in the text, and why the various test methods have not been described in such a detail as to allow readers to apply them, in case they should wish. The answer to the first question would be that completeness is not synonymous with readability. Instead, the present author could easily be criticized for his selection of material. One guiding principle has been variability as concerns methodology, issues, and subjects. The second question touches the purpose of the present volume that was not meant to serve as a general PG manual. Many of the methods have in fact their own manuals.

The most pertinent question to ask is instead why process, and particularly PG (microgenetic) theory and methodology has met with relative indifference (see the Foreword). It seems incomprehensible, for instance, that educated psychologists should continue to regard temporal change in series of measurements as error variation and hide interesting information in summary scores, difficult to interpret. To select just one example: Such an intriguing phenomenon as regression is often dismissed by lukewarm critics as mere instability; and this in spite of the fact that regressions can be demonstrated over a variety of methods and even shown, e.g., in the case of visual afterimages, to imply return to experiences typical of immature children. And why is a static and abstract concept like trait more appealing to many students of personality than the more concrete concept of process, and its derivative, structure?

The very idea of microprocesses, unfolding between the biological givens and environmental constraints, may appear absurd to many. It does not seem to help that the idea has proved fruitful in many fields of psychology, including neuropsychology, and has been presented, even recently, by a number of eminent researchers. Many microgeneticists who have dared to send papers to prestigious but conservative journals, anxious to guard their reputation, are well acquainted with indifferent, even insolent, reactions from reviewers.

Another reason why some personality psychologists may shun PG methods could be that they appear complicated, at least at a first glance. Some of them necessitate the use of high‑tech instruments, not available in every hardware store, in addition to a need for experience in handling them and in interpreting the data they generate. Self‑reports are so much easier to administrate. And they also have other advantages. But their disadvantages are all too obvious to a personality psychologist, particularly if his or her work is clinical. Could subjects with a slanted and limited self-knowledge be expected to manage such questionnaires in an adequate manner, e.g., repressors who systematically "normalize" their self-descriptions? The user of self-report inventories should, hence, realize that their results must be seen as reflections of what the subject wants the experimenter (and, in some cases, him‑ or herself) to know.

But self-report inventories are not the only alternatives to PG methods. The classic projective tests still have a very strong attraction on many clinicians, in spite of the obvious demands they make on the administrator/interpreter. The present author would even consent to appoint the Rorschach test to one of the really epoch‑making innovations in applied psychology. To be fair, the test has suffered from serious reliability problems. But these seem to have been mended, at least to some degree. What is more serious is that the test misses the developmental perspective: Early and late in the process of reality construction are hopelessly mixed in the test protocols.

The most obvious obstacle to PG seems to be the naive realism that is still guiding much psychological experimentation. It is ironic that warnings against such an approach were voiced already by members of the Wurzburg school. We have to understand, Kulpe argued, that reality is not immediately given but is only understood in a process of construction. This approach undoubtedly inspired the Aktualgenese people as presented in the beginning of Chapter 1 and later microgeneticists with their inclination to go "beyond the information given".

Psychoanalysts, then, would be the natural allies of students of processes. At least, they endeavor to look for the reality behind manifest appearances, a reality represented by a complicated network of processes. Without unveiling them, analysts believe, real psychological explanations would not be at all possible. But psychoanalysts are not necessarily willing to absorb findings coming from psychological experiments. It is true that you find psychoanalysts in the frontier of developmental research. At the same time many of them were late to acknowledge Piaget's relevance for their own theorizing. A conservative core among analysts seems to consider data emanating from their own practice as more "real" than those provided by academic psychologists. Still, psychoanalysts and perceptgeneticists share a common outlook on human nature, and that counts for more than territorial squabbles.

Another common ground could be the concept of structure, since structure is at the heart of psychoanalytic theory. It was pointed out in Chapter 1 that personality should be the obvious focus of process research. But the kind of research presented here is not favored by conventional trait theory. One reason could be that there is good ground to consider trait and process as incommensurable concepts, like measuring the "position" and "momentum" of a particle according to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. If you define trait, process would be irrelevant, if you observe process, trait seems no longer necessary. Structure, however, is not a reified entity but the product of process.

While trait psychologists make an effort to find periods in life where traits change as minimally as possible, structure psychologists accept structures with different degrees of permanence, e.g., less stable in childhood than in adult life. And even in adult life temporary structures are a possibility, and an interesting one at that, e.g., for students of the course of psychotherapy. Structures thus serve as constraints for processes, their function being inhibitory: the stronger the structure the more inflexible the process. While processes form structure they are, at the same time, subjected to them. By experimentally ana­lyzing structures, of more or less permanence, the psychologist will be able, not only to diagnose an individual but also to predict his or her future behavior.

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